Wolfsbane es una banda de hard rock y heavy metal formada en Tamworth, Inglaterra que tenía como vocalista a Blaze Bayley, quien pasó a ser el vocalista de Iron Maiden en la década de 1990, cuando Bruce Dickinson dejó el grupo.

Wolfsbane tenía fama de disponer de una fiel base de fans, los que fueron llamados „Howling Mad Shitheads“ o HMS.

Sus comienzos se remontan al año 1984, en el festival de rock de Tamworth, Castle Grounds. Ellos eran una banda muy joven que tocaba música original porque en realidad no eran tan buenos para hacer covers de otras bandas. A pesar de eso, tenían una actitud y tocaban cada tocata como si fuera un concierto de gran importancia.

La banda fue fundada por Jeff Hateley (bajo) y Jase Edwards (guitarra), con un nombre diferente, el cual eventualmente cambio a Wolfsbane. Luego se unió al grupo como cantante Blaze Bayley.

Ellos firmaron con Def American récords, y Rick Rubin produjo su primer álbum, Live Fast, Die Fast. Comparado con los inicios de la banda Van Halen, debutó en el nº 50 de la carta Inglesa, pero falló en generar impresión alguna en la audiencia americana. Sin embargo por lograr un renombre gracias a sus conciertos en vivo, lograron ser teloneros en la gira en Inglaterra de Iron Maiden en el tiempo en que su segundo álbum fuera lanzado.

Su segundo álbum Down Fall The Good Guys fue un mejor intento pero al igual que su predecesor falló en generar un impacto comercial por lo que la banda fue dejada por Def American. En momento ellos fueron votados como el mejor acto en vivo en Inglaterra sin tener un contrato, en el tiempo en que su tercer disco, Massive Noise Injection, fue lanzado.

Fue durante este tiempo en que Bruce Dickinson anuncia su partida de Iron Maiden, y Bayley fue invitado a audicionar para la banda, pero este rehusó y continuó haciendo conciertos con Wolfsbane. Sin embargo a medida que se hacía aparente la idea de que la banda nunca serían gran éxito, y durante la grabación del álbum final, Blaze Bayley cambió de decisión. Blaze Bayley fue nombrado el nuevo cantante de Iron Maiden el 23 de diciembre de 1993, resultando en la muerte de su ex-banda.

Algunos miembros de Wolfsbane también tocaron bajo el nombre de Stretch, durante 1995.

En el presente Jase Edwards está tocando con las bandas The Wildhearts y Ginger, (la banda del líder del grupo The Wildhearts) Jeff Hately está tocando en múltiples bandas como Paradise, Kill II This, y China Beach, mientras que Steve Danger Elliot está entrenando para ser un piloto aéreo.

Wolfsbane se ha reagrupado para llevar a cabo un tour por Inglaterra después de 13 años de letargo como headliners de The Wildhearts el próximo diciembre, van a tocar los días 17 de diciembre en el Wolverhampton Civic, el 18 de diciembre en la Newcastle Academy, el 19 de diciembre en la Manchester Academy, el 20 de diciembre en la Glasgow Academy y el 21 en el London Astoria, siendo uno de los reencuentros más esperados en Inglaterra. Por otra parte Blaze Bayley formó una banda, después de su salida de Iron Maiden, llamada B. L. A. Z. E., con la que ha lanzado 3 discos en estudio y 2 en vivo, logrando un gran aceptación de la crítica sobre todo en el segundo disco el Tenth Dimension, y con la cual sigue tocando hasta el día de hoy.


WALG (1590 AM, „News/Talk 1590“) is a radio station serving Albany, Georgia, and surrounding cities with a News/Talk format. This station is under ownership of Cumulus Media.

As of July 2014, notable weekday syndicated programming includes shows by John Batchelor, Herman Cain, Rush Limbaugh, Mark Levin, and Michael Savage plus Red Eye Radio and America’s Morning News. Notable weekend programming includes the syndicated The Kim Komando Show hosted by Kim Komando, Smoke This! hosted by Cigar Dave, and Sporting News Radio, and talk shows hosted by Clark Howard, Larry Kudlow, and Gary Sullivan.

Notable local programming included news and interview program „Wake Up Albany“ hosted by Matt Patrick from June 2007 until February 2009.

On air disc-jockeys included Brother Dave Miller, Bill Young, Steve Preston, Ron Mani, Lil‘ Country Joe, Ranger Rick Stewart a.k.a. Ricky Horror, Ken Ayers, Tim Rainey, Lisa Lee, and Skip Elliott.

This station was launched as WALB in May 1941 by the Albany Herald. In 1954, the Herald signed on a TV station with the callsign WALB-TV. The AM radio station has been assigned the „WALG“ call letters by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) since it was sold by the Herald to Allen Woodall, Sr., in 1960.

From 1959 till about 1970 the station was known as „Johnny Reb Radio“. A loud rebel yell was the station brand and a Confederate soldier was the logo. The rock and roll station was a reporting station for the Gavin Report during those years and had great influence in the southeast US. Known for its hard rock and obnoxious announcers this station was a legend in the southwest Georgia area.[citation needed]

The studios were located in an area north of the city of Albany near a swamp.[citation needed] The area surrounding the station was low country and covered with water most of the time. A raised walkway led you from the small parking lot to the studio. Many deejays were delayed in their air shifts because a fat cottonmouth snake would be sunning themselves on the walkway.[citation needed]

David Miller, AKA Brother Dave Miller, worked at WALG from 1976 until 1985, with a gap in 1977 and 1978.

WALG was the ‚white‘ pop/rock station in Albany for decades, and was on the cutting edge of the ever-changing pop music scene for most of that period. There were radio alternatives in Albany such as WGPC, Albany’s first station which signed on in 1933. It played beautiful music, and was a charter station for the Atlanta Braves when they moved to Georgia in 1966. For country fans, there was WJAZ at 960 AM, and WLYB went on the air in the 1960s, at 1250AM. Its studio was off Old Leesburg Road, near WALG’s transmitter. The ‚black‘ station was WJIZ-FM. Its 100,000 watt transmitter and big stick could put a listenable signal into Panama City, Florida.

Ownership invested in the highest quality jingles, a feature which separates the classy from the palookas in the radio biz. It also paid good wages for good air talent, though few DJs stayed long; Most of the ones who wanted to make a career in radio moved on to bigger markets from WALG. The station also had a local news department, with notable newsmen like Sam Pruitt, Tom Bryant, Rick Williams, Steve Robinson, Rick Segers, and others.

At one time, WALG even featured traffic reports from an airplane flying over the city, broadcast via 2-way radio piped through the radio console. WALG was also a social innovator. At a time when black voices were only heard on black radio stations, WALG News featured Eddie Grissom, the first black news voice on a ‚white‘ Albany station. It began as a 1,000-watt station, omnidirectional, and then went to 5 kW day, and 1 kW night, with a southerly directional signal that protected WTGA, also at 1590, in Thomaston, Georgia. A „First Phone“ license was required to operate the station until more modern equipment was installed in the 1970s, because at power change, the ‚Phase Angle‘ of the signal had to be changed as part of the FCC requirements. The studios were located in an area north of the city of Albany near a swamp.[citation needed]

The area surrounding the station was low country and covered with water most of the time. A raised walkway led you from the small parking lot to the studio. Many deejays were delayed in their air shifts because a fat cottonmouth snake would be sunning themselves on the walkway.[citation needed] The transmitter was and is located off Old Leesburg Road, at the end of Dunbar Lane, but the studio was for many years located in the Holiday Inn, downtown. This was set to music in some WALG jingles that sang: „We’re in a Holiday Inn!“ Cumulus moved the WALG studio to the old First State Bank building on the corner of South Slappey Blvd. and Broad Avenue in the 1990s, and the old studio building on Dunbar is boarded up today. For a time that building was leased to a small FM station licensed to Camilla.

On-air personalities from the 1970s included Ron Mani, „Buzz One“ (Ron Brown), J.J. Stone (Billy Thorman) Christopher Hayes, Rick Ledbetter, Jim King, Sonny Lofton, „Jane“, Bill Young, Skip Elliott, Kris Van Dyke, Dave Miller, Jack O’Brien, Mike Speers, Carol Ward, ‚Spanky‘, Rick Stewart, Hal Edwards, Otis Ulm, and Steve Preston.

WALG was managed by many different people through the years, but perhaps its most memorable GM was Mark Shor. Mark was a New York Jew who sold radio ads in deepest South Georgia. Under Shor, WALG, and later with WKAK-FM in the mix, the station saw it highest billing. At its apogee, WALG-WKAK employed thirty people, was live 24/7. Shor mostly worked for the Woodalls, first Whitfield, then Alan. There was a period when Shor parted way with the Woodalls, circa 1973 – 1975.


Botball is an educational robotics program that focuses on engaging middle and high school aged students in team-oriented robotics competitions. Thousands of children and young adults participate in the Botball program. It has been active since 1998 and features a robotics curriculum which focuses on designing, building and programming a pair of autonomous robots. Teams use a standardized kit of materials, document the process and then compete in a tournament in which the challenges change annually. All materials in the kits are exactly the same for every team around the world, so there is no unfair advantages. Botball teams are mostly based in the US with over 300 teams and local tournaments in more than a dozen regions. In recent years it also holds an annual Global Conference on Educational Robotics (GCER), with an international tournament that attracts teams all over the country as well as from Austria, China, Uganda, Poland, Qatar, Kuwait, and Egypt.

Botball’s mantra is that “Today’s Botball kids are tomorrow’s scientists and engineers.” The program is managed by the non-profit KISS Institute for Practical Robotics (KISS stands for the engineering acronym: Keep It Simple Stupid) whose vision is to use robotics “to stimulate and engage students in exploring their potential in engineering, science and math.” The goal of Botball and KISS to educate the workforce of the future and to engage students in science, technology, engineering and math. This objective is shared by the NASA Robotics Alliance Project (RAP) which partners with Botball and other robotics education programs. NASA RAP’s mission is “to enable the implementation of future robotic space exploration missions.” NASA sponsors Botball through providing technical mentors and other resources. It also hosts an online free course in Programming robots in C featuring a controller that was used in Botball NASA RAP sees Botball as an opportunity to reach out to its future workforce and provide relevant hands-on experience and necessary skills to potential future NASA scientists.

Botball is known for the sophistication and complexity of its robotic competitions. What differentiates Botball from other student robotics programs is that the robots are autonomous; therefore, they are not directed by remote control. Students use computer science to program the robots to recognize challenges and then attempt the objectives of the competition. The robots contain several types of sensors and also two cameras for their computer vision systems. Robot Magazine, highlighted in an article the gameplay and systems, “Every year the game offers different challenges at varying levels of difficulty, so participants can focus on harder goals, or find simpler solutions, based on their abilities… Botball uses the CBC2, a powerful robot controller that easily interfaces with a large number of sensors and effectors and features an ARM 9-based CPU/Vision processor running LINUX, an ARM 7-based DAQ/Motor control system, and integrated display and touch screens that are easy to use. The CBC2 uses the KISS-C Integrated Development Environment and its libraries, especially designed to be friendly to users with vastly different programming experience. Both the CBC2 and KISS-C were developed by KISS Institute and are used in university research programs as well as the Botball Program.”

Botball competitions revolve around using autonomous robots to complete a series of tasks (such as collecting objects and moving them to another location or recognizing certain color objects and sorting them) within a set time limit of two minutes. Sensors and cameras give input to the robots, which help to identify objects. Beforehand and between rounds of competition, participants program the robots using an Integrated Development Environment (KISS-C is the latest version). Botball competitors also must complete online documentation of their progress and their goals to score points.

A similar competition for adults, called the KIPR Open (formerly Beyond Botball), commenced in 2001.

The KISS Institute for Practical Robotics is a 501(c)(3) not-for profit education and research organization, incorporated in Virginia in 1994. It is headquartered now located in Norman, Oklahoma. KISS Institute was co-founded by Ms. Cathryne Stein, Dr. David Miller, and Dr. Marc Slack with the objective of creating a center for a system of technology and science education programs based on robotics, and to use robotic technology to better serve the public good. Ms. Stein has recently retired as Executive Director; she is succeeded by Dr. Steve Goodgame, an experienced educator. Dr. Miller is the Chief Technology Officer, as well as the Wilkonson Professor of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering at the University of Oklahoma. Dr. Miller is a former JPL employee, having made significant contributions to NASA’s Mars Rover project.

Botball was first started in 1997 by the KISS Institute for Practical Robotics (KIPR).

At the start of each Botball season, each team receives a kit of components with enough material to build two completely autonomous robots.

The mechanical components used in Botball are Lego Technic bricks. The electrical components have included a variety of robot controllers, of which each team’s kit contains two (enabling them to build two fully autonomous robots out of each kit), as well as a number of different sensors and motors.


An unmodified iRobot Create.

Previously used:

An example of a Handyboard. This one is larger than the one included in most sets.

The RCX without any attachments or motors.

The XBC robot controller. The Game Boy Advance, Game Boy Micro, or Game Boy Advance SP can be used with the XBC.

A CBC Botball Controller (based on a Chumby)

The official programming language used in Botball from 1997 to 2008 was Interactive C.
KISS-C is the official programming language used in Botball 2009 to 2011. KISS IDE is the official programming environment used in Botball from Fall of 2011–present. KISS IDE supports C, C++, Java, and Python.

Robots can only be constructed of the parts included in the kit.

Each year has a different set of objectives. The 2008 theme was outer space based, with the robots on board a space station. The robots must get ready for a solar flare by collecting „food“ (green balls), rescuing „crew members“ (orange balls), and deploying „satellites“ (blue cups) and „solar sails“ (cocktail umbrellas). The robots must also collect Botguy (a plush robot) and a garden (a large green ball) and place them on their side. The board is made up of two eight foot by four foot boards connected by a two foot by four foot ditch. The ditch has two bridges on either side which the robots must knock down to get to the other side.

The field size depends upon the game; this one totals 8 ft by 12 ft, with most of the surface surrounded by 1-1/2 inch PVC pipe. When two teams compete against each other, they start on opposite ends of the playing surface and have 120 seconds to move around objects and score points. At the end of a game, the robots must stop themselves, at which time a judge scores the game to determine which team’s robots won.

For the 2008 season, the initial score of a team is 0 and then points are calculated at the end of the game using the point values found in the following table:

The Botball regional season runs from late January to about early May. During this time, students attend a two-day workshop and are trained in learning the basics of computer programming. Students have six to eight weeks to program, build, and test their robots. As the robots progress, students have to document how their robot is coming along as well as the tweaks and changes they made from the original design. During the regional competition, there are three rounds: Seeding, Double Eliminations, and Alliance. Seeding: Seeding is where one team goes against themselves(it is more like a practice round) but students still earn points and there is an award for the team that scores the highest on the seeding round. Double Eliminations is where the actual competition begins and where teams compete against each other until they are eliminated twice. Alliance Matches are matches for teams who have been eliminated twice early in the competition. Two teams are paired up together and they compete for points(it works like the seeding rounds but there is 1 individual team on each side and they try and score points as an alliance.)

As of 2012, here are the following regions:

Botball also had 4 tournaments in the Middle East:

As of 2011, Botball also had tournaments in

Starting in 2001, KIPR began holding a national competition and in 2003 the first international team participated. The international competition is held during the summer after all of the regional competitions have completed. Every team that participates in a regional competition is eligible to participate in the international competition. The game rules at the international competition are generally identical to that year’s regional game. The event is held during the GCER (Global Conference for Educational Robotics). The KIPR Open (formerly Beyond Botball) is also held at GCER and multiple speakers come and talk about the robotics field. GCER has been hosted in Hawaii; Northern and Southern CA; Norman, OK; Jacksonville, FL; Leesburg, VA; and Edwardsville, IL, and Washington DC. In 2013, GCER will be held in Norman, OK.

Tribunal mondial sur l’Irak

Le Tribunal mondial sur l’Irak inspiré du tribunal Russell sur la guerre du Viêt Nam en 1967, est un tribunal d’opinion composé d’anciens responsables de l’ONU, et de personnalités issues du militantisme pacifique ou d’intellectuels. Le tribunal procéda à des auditions et des enquêtes sur divers évènements de la guerre et délibéra de la légalité de celle-ci ainsi que du rôle des Nations Unies et des médias. L’idée de sa création est l’œuvre de Müge Sökmen et Ayse Berktaye, lors de la Conference of European Peace and Human Rights Networks, qui se tint en juin 2003 à Bruxelles, il siégea entre le 23 et 27 juin 2005 à Istanbul.

La Guerre en Irak causa de nombreuses pertes humaines et différentes sources identifièrent de possibles violations des conventions de Genève, crimes de guerre ou crimes contre l’humanité lors de son déroulement, comme par exemple au sein de la prison d’Abu Ghraib et l’utilisation de munitions à uranium appauvri. Selon les estimations des Nations Unies, un million de personnes moururent des suites de l’embargo imposé à l’Irak, après l’invasion du Koweït en 1990, en raison de malnutrition ou de manque de matériel médical.

Bien que des enquêtes aient été diligentées concernant certaines de ces allégations de crimes, l’idée d’instaurer un tribunal international, comparable à ceux de Nuremberg ou de l’ex-Yougoslavie, semblait irréaliste aux yeux de la plupart des observateurs. En outre, les États-Unis avaient également refusé de ratifier le statut de la Cour pénale internationale. Cette volonté américaine d’ignorer ou de s’exempter des investigations d’une telle cour encouragea à la fondation d’un tribunal populaire chargé d’enquêter sur le déroulement de la guerre en Irak.


TELES AG Informationstechnologien is a provider of equipment, solutions and services to fixed, fixed-mobile convergence, and Next Generation Networking (NGN) service providers.

The company was founded in 1983 as TELES GmbH by Professor Dr.-Ing. Sigram Schindler in close cooperation with the Technical University of Berlin. Professor Schindler lectured in telecommunications at the university until 1998. In 1997, he was voted High-Tech Manager of the Year by Manager Magazine in Germany.

Active in VoIP technology development since 1996, the company’s main development and operational focus lies in the areas of IMS and NGN.

TELES supplies service providers with complete Class 4 and Class 5 NGN Softswitch solutions. TELES NGN Solution is a standard based, scalable architecture aimed at minimizing integration time and allowing quick deployment. The solution includes hosted voice functionality which enables residential VoIP services, hosted PBX (IP Centrex) services, Fixed-Mobile-Convergence, IP Trunking, and additional value added applications. Classical NGN/PSTN applications like Wholesale, Long Distance, and NGN backbone services are also available with this solution.

The TELES product portfolio also includes VoIP gateways and mobile gateways for GSM, CDMA, and UMTS networks.

DART First State

The Delaware Transit Corporation, operating as DART First State, is the only public transportation system that operates throughout Delaware, USA. DART First State is a subsidiary of the Delaware Department of Transportation.

Although most of its routes run in and around Wilmington and Newark in New Castle County and connect to two Cecil County, Maryland routes; DART operates bus route networks in the Dover area of Kent County; five year-round bus routes which hub at Georgetown in Sussex County, plus six seasonal routes connecting Rehoboth Beach and other beach towns in Sussex County and with Ocean City, Maryland.

DART was awarded the prestigious Public Transportation System Outstanding Achievement Award by the American Public Transportation Association in 2003.

DART First State operates 43 fixed route bus routes throughout New Castle County, the majority of which hub in downtown Wilmington at Rodney Square. Other major bus hubs in New Castle County include Newark Transit Hub and the Christiana Mall. Most routes operate Monday through Saturday with some Sunday service. All except 4 of these routes are directly operated by DART First State; the remaining 4 routes (Rts. 43, 59, 62 & 64) are operated by a third-party contractor.

DART First State operates 13 fixed route bus routes within the Dover area. These bus routes operate Monday through Friday with some Saturday service out of the Dover Transit Center in downtown Dover as a hub-and-spoke system. These routes are numbered in the 100-series. In addition to the fixed-route service, GoLink Flex bus service provides service from points within the Dover area to a free transfer to a fixed route. This service is available on weekdays through advance reservations.

DART First State operates a total of 11 bus routes within Sussex County. Five of these routes offer year-round fixed route bus service within Sussex County and connect at Georgetown. During summer months, DART operates 6 additional seasonal bus routes which hub at the Rehoboth Park and Ride lot and offer connecting service to coastal communities along the Delaware shoreline and to Ocean City, Maryland from mid-May to mid-September. These routes are numbered in the 200-series. Three of the year-round routes are „Flex Routes“, where passengers can make reservations for the bus to pick them up within a mile off the fixed route and also flag the bus at any location in designated Flag Zones; these routes are numbered in the 900-series.

DART First State operates two intercounty bus routes which connect the three separate systems. Route 301 operates weekday service between Downtown Wilmington, Christiana Mall, Middletown, Smyrna, and Dover, connecting the New Castle and Kent Counties fixed route systems. Route 303 operates between Dover and Georgetown, connecting the Kent and Sussex Counties fixed route systems. During the summer months, DART First State operates Route 305 on weekends, connecting Wilmington and Dover with Rehoboth Beach from Memorial Day weekend to Labor Day weekend.

DART First State, through the Delaware Department of Transportation, subsidizes the segment of the Wilmington/Newark Line of SEPTA Regional Rail within the State of Delaware. SEPTA operates the service under contract with DART First State. Signage at the Delaware stations differs from that at other SEPTA Regional Rail stations.

These trains originate in Philadelphia and operate to Wilmington station in Wilmington, with an intermediate stop at Claymont station. A few rush-hour trains continue on to Newark station in Newark, with an intermediate stop at Churchmans Crossing station, located near the Delaware Park horse racing track.

Most DART First State bus routes have a base cash fare of $2 as of February 2016. Cash fares must be paid in exact change. A reduced fare is available for senior citizens and disabled persons. Children under 46 inches in height and the blind ride for free. DART First State does not issue transfers; riders who use multiple buses must purchase a Day Pass. Intercounty bus routes along with Route 45 have zone fares based on distance traveled. Weekly or Monthly SEPTA TrailPasses can be used on buses in northern New Castle County.

DART First State offers a stored value card called DARTCard that can be used to pay for single-ride bus fares or a Daily Pass. DARTCards are available in six denominations (Gold, Blue, Yellow, Green, Purple, and Platinum) ranging from $9.60 to $65.00 for regular fares along with a $14.00 Red DARTCard for reduced fares for senior citizens and disabled persons. DARTCards provide a discount off the regular fare, with the discount increasing the more expensive the card is. For example, the Gold DARTCard costs $9.60 and has a value of $12.00 for a 20% discount; while the Platinum DARTCard costs $65.00 and has a value of $108.00 for a 40% discount. The reduced fare DARTCard costs $14.00 and has a value of $46.00 for a 70% discount. DARTCards are not rechargeable and a new one must be purchased once the value is used up. DARTCards are available from DART First State by purchasing over the phone, by mail, or online; they are also available at selected retailers across the state.

Gamelan notation

Notation plays a relatively minor role in the oral traditions of Indonesian gamelan but, in Java and Bali, several systems of gamelan notation were devised beginning at the end of the 19th century, initially for archival purposes.

Kepatihan is a type of cipher musical notation that was devised for notation of the Indonesian gamelan.

The system was devised around 1900 at the Kepatihan (the Grand Vizier’s compound) in Surakarta, and was based upon the Galin-Paris-Chevé system, imported in the nineteenth century by Christian missionaries to allow the notation of hymns. It superseded several other notation systems of Javanese origin devised around the same time.

To this day, the value of notation is disputed. As the kepatihan cipher system records primarily the skeletal melody line (or balungan), the wide range of improvisational techniques performed upon this line by the various instruments in gamelan are not represented. Whether they should be represented has been a matter of discussion in modern Indonesia.

The pitches of the seven-tone pélog tuning system are designated by the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7; while the five-tone slendro pitches are notated as 1, 2, 3, 5, and 6. The octaves are noted by dots above and below the numbers, as in Chinese jianpu, although of course the pitches do not correspond. A dot over a note indicates the octave above, and a dot below a note represents the octave below. Two dots over a note indicate a note two octaves higher than standard, and so on.

Depending on the tuning of the individual gamelan, it is often possible to hear the pitches 1, 2, 3, 5, and 6 of slendro as an anhemitonic pentatonic scale, do-re-mi-sol-la.

However, in the pélog system pitches are simply numbered from low to high 1–7 and there is no question of interpreting these sounds diatonically. As the pélog scale is essentially a five-note scale, the notes 4 and 7 can be considered as ‚accidentals‘ in Western terms: a 4 functions as a ’sharp‘ 3 (common in patet lima or nem) or as a ‚flat‘ 5 (usual in patet barang). Similarly 7 functions as a ‚flat‘ 1 in patet lima or nem. The note 1 in patet barang may function as a ’sharp‘ 7, but is often to be interpreted as evidence of ‚modulation‘ to another scale in Western terms. (It is, however, debatable whether Javanese musicians have a concept of modulation.)

By default, kepatihan notes are assumed all to have the same duration. Deviations from these regular rhythms are noted in two ways. Beams or lines (overscores) above notes indicate half the standard duration (although this is an area of notation that is often inaccurate in practice). A dot (pin) in the place of a note indicates the continuation of the previous note, not a rest. In vocal parts the figure 0 represents a rest, but rests are not written in instrumental parts, because the instruments normally play continuously and any rests are part of the basic playing style of the instrument. Additional symbols are needed for some instruments; for example, melismas and slurred bowing are noted by lines above or underneath the numbers. Strokes on colotomic instruments are indicated by diacritical marks over or around the kepatihan numbers. There are numerous sets of such marks in use; for example, one set (not an agreed standard) uses a circle for gong ageng, parentheses for gong suwukan, ^ for kenong, ˇ for kempul, + for ketuk, and – for kempyang. All or some of these marks may be omitted, as they can usually be determined from the form (bentuk).

The description above applies to central Javanese music. In the Sundanese music of West Java, the system works in reverse, with 1 representing the highest note instead of the lowest; also a dot over a note indicates the octave below, and a dot below a note represents the octave above.

Ordinarily the system only notates the balungan (the core melody as it is played by the sarons) and gerongan (choral parts). However, for pedagogical purposes, other patterns, such as the melodic formulas sekaran and cengkok used on the panerusan instruments may be notated.

Kepatihan is widely used in ethnomusicological studies of the gamelan, sometimes accompanied by transcriptions into Western staff notation with approximated pitches. The relative merits of kepatihan and staff notation are sometimes debated, but staff notation is essentially incompatible with the ‚end-weighted‘ nature of melodic structures in Indonesian music. In this respect, kepatihan is more suitable, although the usage of overscores (taken from the Galin-Paris-Chevé system) continues to cause practical difficulties.

The Solonese script could capture the flexible rhythms of the pesinden with a squiggle on a horizontal staff.

Composers and scholars both Indonesian and foreign have also mapped the slendro and pelog tuning systems of gamelan onto the western staff, with and without various symbols for microtones.

In Yogyakarta a ladder-like vertical staff allowed notation of the balungan by dots and also included important drum strokes.

Mewat (distrikt)


Mewat (hindi: मेवात जिला) er et distrikt i den indiske delstaten Haryana. Distriktets hovedstad er Nuh. 4. april 2005 ble distriktet dannet av en del av distriktene Faridabad og Gurgaon.

Ved folketellingen i 2011 var det 1 089 406 innbyggere i distriktet, mot 789 750 i 2001. Den urbane befolkningen utgjør 11,38 % av befolkningen.

Barn i alderen 0 til 6 år utgjorde 22,29 % i 2011 mot 35,23 % i 2001. Antallet jenter i den alderen per tusen gutter er 903 i 2011 mot 892 i 2001.

Ambala · Bhiwani · Faridabad · Fatehabad · Gurgaon · Hisar · Jhajjar · Jind · Kaithal · Karnal · Kurukshetra · Mahendragarh · Mewat · Palwal · Panchkula · Panipat · Rewari · Rohtak · Sirsa · Sonipat · Yamuna Nagar

Hugo Pfaltz

Hugo Menzel Pfaltz, Jr. (Born September 23, 1931) is an American Republican Party politician who served two terms in the New Jersey General Assembly. He is a graduate of Hamilton College and Harvard Law School, and served in the United States Navy Reserve.

Pfaltz lives in Summit, New Jersey and practices law there. He was elected to the Assembly in 1967, running on a ticket with former Assemblyman Peter McDonough; they defeated former Assemblywoman Irene Griffin and Kenneth White. Pfaltz beat White by 812 votes. In the General Election, McDonough and Pfaltz defeated Democrats George Perselay and Joseph Gannon by wide margins. He was re-elected to a second term in 1969, this time running with incumbent Herbert Heilmann in a newly-drawn district; they defeated Democrats Michael Mehr and Peter Humanik by wide margins. Pfaltz did not run again in 1971.

He married Marilyn Mildred Muir of Chappaqua, New York on September 30, 1956. They have three children: William, Beth, and Robert (Deceased).

William Ayrton (music critic)

William Ayrton FRS FSA (22 February 1777 – 8 May 1858) was an English opera manager and music critic.

Ayrton was the younger son of Dr. Edmund Ayrton, and was born in London. In 1816 he went abroad to engage singers for the Italian opera at the King’s Theatre, of which he undertook the direction in the following year, producing for the first time in England Mozart’s Don Giovanni, and introducing to English audiences such great artists as Giuditta Pasta, Violante Camporese, Gaetano Crivelli and Giuseppe Ambrogietti. In spite of a successful season Ayrton was obliged by the disputes of the company to retire from the direction. In 1821 he again (under the management of John Ebers) took the post of musical director, but owing to opposition he encountered from the committee he was again forced to resign.

For the rest of his life Ayrton concentrated on writing. From 1823 to 1833 he edited and contributed largely to the ‚Harmonicon, a periodical. In 1834-5 he published his Sacred Minstrelsy, and in 1834-5-6 the work known as the Musical Library, an early cheap collection of vocal and instrumental music.

Ayrton was a Fellow of the Royal Society, a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of London, and one of the original members of the Royal Institution and the Athenæum Club. On 17 May 1803 he had married Marianne, the daughter of the composer Samuel Arnold.

Ayrton died at Bridge Street, Westminster, on 8 March 1858, and is buried in the Kensal Green Cemetery, London.

The personal papers and correspondence of William Ayrton can be found in the British Library. His son William Scrope Ayrton (1804-1885) annotated the material, with the collection eventually partly sold at auction and partly donated to the British Library by his granddaughter Phylis Alsager Ayrton.

 „Ayrton, William“. Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.